If you think ReasonML compiles to JS, you are wrong

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Tags: programming, ocaml, js

In this post we'll examine what ReasonML really is and what it compiles to. Everyone coming from the ML community already knows the truth, but in the JS community, this misconception seems surprisingly common. It's not just about giving credit, but about the true potential of the language that is far greater than that of TypeScript or Elm.

Some theory

Modern compilers are rarely monolithic. Instead, they are split into multiple independent parts that deal with a specific compilation stage.

Typical workflow is:

Concrete syntax → Abstract syntax → Intermediate representation → Executable code

The concrete syntax is what the programmer writes. That's also what people are arguing about a lot, but in reality, it's a rather trivial issue. There's no real difference between if(x == 0) { y = 1 } and if x = 0 then begin y := 1 end. The way the language looks has little to do with the way it works. It's quite easy to make a language look very different. In the simplest case, all you need to do is a bunch of substitutions, that's how Steve Bourne made his C code of the original Bourne shell look like Algol (begin{, end} etc.).

After translation to the abstract syntax, all that disappears. Both examples above could be translated to the same abstract syntax like COND(BINOP(=, x, 0), BINOP(ASSIGN, y, 1), NONE). This approach makes it possible to modify and extend the concrete syntax (e.g. add “syntactic sugar”) without modifying anything down that pipeline.

Operations like type checking are normally done on the abstract syntax.

If the program passes the type checks and so on, the abstract syntax is translated to an intermediate representation. That's a code for an abstract machine that is easy to translate to the target—typically an assembly language, but it can as well be another language, like JS. Optimizations are usually done on the intermediate representation.

So, what ReasonML really is?

Just as its own website says (sadly, not on the front page), ReasonML is an alternative concrete syntax for the OCaml language.

It's translated to the abstract syntax of the INRIA's OCaml compiler and it relies on the OCaml compiler for type checking, optimizations, and everything else past the concrete syntax stage.

Thus, it doesn't compile to anything executable at all. It's best viewed as a plugin for OCaml.

You don't need ReasonML to use the rest of the toolchain, whether you want to compile your code to JS or anything else. And your options are far wider than JS: the mainline OCaml can produce native executables for x86, ARM, and a bunch of other architectures as well as bytecode executables that can run on any platform, all for GNU/Linux, *BSD, macOS, and Windows.

Howver, mainline OCaml doesn't support compiling to JS.

What is compiled to JS?

The intermediate representation produced by the OCaml compiler. Compilation to JS happens at the stage when the concrete and even abstract syntax is irrelevant.

You can see it in the diagram in ReasonML's own README.

The alternative compiler backend that produces JS instead of native code is called BuckleScript. The recommended ReasonML setup uses it, but they are separate, independent projects that can exist without each other (but cannot exist without the upstream OCaml compiler).

BuckleScript is not the only way to compile OCaml to JS. The other way is js_of_ocaml that works on bytecode and doesn't aim to produce human-readable JS, but is much easier to plug into an existing build pipeline.


So, what you are missing by thinking that ReasonML is a language compiled to JS?

  • The other, maintstream OCaml syntax that most OCaml projects (including ReasonML itself) use.
  • Compilation of the same modules to native code.

In short:

  • You don't need ReasonML to use the OCaml toolchain (native or BuckleScript) if you don't like it.
  • You can use ReasonML with both native and BuckleScript toolchains if you like it.